General Background Information

Barkan, Elliott Robert, ed. A Nation of Peoples. Boulder, CO: Greenwood Press, 1999.

Bruccoli, Matthew U., et al., eds. Dictionary of Literary Biography (Series). Detroit: Gale, 1978 - .
This well-known series includes a number of useful reference books on multicultural literature, such as Afro-American Fiction Writers after 1955 (Vol. 33), Afro-American Poets since 1955 (Vol. 41), Chicano Writers (Vols. 82, 122, 209), Native American Writers of the United States (Vol. 175), Twentieth-Century American Western Writers (Vols. 186, 206, and 210).

Dunne, Finley Peter, and Schaaf, Barbara, ed. Mr Dooley, Wise and Funny -- We Need Him Now. Springfield, IL: Lincoln Herndon, 1988.

Gillan, Maria Mazziotti and Gillan, Jennifer, eds. Identity Lessons: Contemporary Writing about Learning to Be American. New York: Penguin Books, 1999.

Humphries, Jefferson and Lowe, John W., eds. The Future of Southern Letters. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Kallet, Marilyn and Clark, Patricia, eds. Worlds in Our Words: Contemporary American Women Writers. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.

Knippling, Alpana Sharma, ed. New Immigrant Literatures in the United States: A Sourcebook to Our Multicultural Literary Heritage. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Lauter, Paul et al., eds. The Heath Anthology of American Literature. 2d ed. 2 Vols. Lexington, MA: Heath, 1994.

Lowe, John W. Jump at the Sun: Zora Neale Hurston's Cosmic Comedy. Champagne: University of Illinois Press, 1994.

Lowe, John W. and Gaines, Ernest J. Conversations with Ernest Gaines. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1995.

Metzker, Isaac, ed. and comp. A Bintel Brief: Sixty Years of Letters from the Lower East Side to the Jewish Daily Forward. New York: Schocken Books, [1990] c1971. Dist. by Pantheon Books.

Muller, Gilbert H. New Strangers in Paradise: The Immigrant Experience and Contemporary American Fiction. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1999.

Sachs, Susan. "American Dream, No Illusions; Immigrant Literature Now About More than Fitting In." The New York Times, January 9, 2000, Sec. 1, p. 21:4.

Serafin, Steven R. and Bendixen, Alfred, eds. Encyclopedia of American Literature. New York: Continuum, 1999.

Sollors, Werner. Beyond Ethnicity: Consent and Descent in American Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Sollors, Werner, ed. Multilingual America: Transnationalism, Ethnicity, and the Languages of American Literature. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

Shange, Ntozake, ed. Beacon Best of 1999: Creative Writing by Women and Men of All Colors. Boston: Beacon Press, 1999.

Yezierska, Anzia. How I Found America: Collected Stories. New York: Persea Books, 1991.

Internet Sites

Electronic Archives for Teaching the American Literatures (Georgetown University)
The Electronic Archives, designed as a complementary resource to the electronic discussion list, T-AMLIT, contain essays, syllabi, bibliographies and other resources for teaching the multiple literatures of the United States. The Archives are created and maintained by the Center for Electronic Projects in American Culture Studies (CEPACS) at Georgetown University's American Studies Program, and are sponsored by Georgetown University and the D.C. Heath Publishing Company.

Literary Resources -- Ethnicities and Nationalities
Prepared by Jack Lynch, an English professor at Rutgers University, this page links to sites that address race, ethnicity or national identity. Links to specific authors appear on his American literature page:

MELUS: The Society for the Study of the Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States
MELUS publications, journal, activities and announcements can be found on this page as well as a link to the listserv, MELUS-L. See especially Ethnic Literature Resources on the Web from the Henry Madden Library, California State University, Fresno.

Modern Language Association of America (MLA)
For over 100 years, members of the MLA have worked to strengthen the study and teaching of language and literature. The organization hosts an annual convention and other meetings, works with related organizations, and sustains a publishing program in the humanities.

National Endowment for the Humanities
This independent U.S. Government agency, created in 1965, is the largest funder of humanities programs in the United States. Its mission is "to enrich American cultural life by promoting knowledge of human history, thought and culture throughout the nation." The Endowment provides grants for high-quality humanities projects in four funding areas: preserving and providing access to cultural resources, education, research and public programs.

Voice of the Shuttle -- English Literature -- Minority Literature
Based at the University of California Santa Barbara, this site provides a structured and briefly annotated guide to online resources in the humanities.

Voices from the Gaps: Women Writers of Color
A project from the University of Minnesota that focuses on the lives and works of women writers of color in North America. Designed primarily to serve as an active learning component in the literature classroom, the site relies upon students and scholars from around the world to contribute author "home pages" for women writers of color. Each author page presents biographical, critical and bibliographical information about the writer, images and quotes pertinent to her life and works, and links to other Internet resources which contain significant information about that writer. The pick "Meet the writers by racial/ethnic background" offers pick for African American, Asian American, Chicana/Latina, Indian/Middle Eastern/Arabic, and Indigenous/Native American writers. In addition to the author pages, which comprise the heart of this website, there is a list of sites related to the study of women writers of color.

Arab American Literature

Abinader, Elmaz. Children of the Roomjee: A Family's Journey. New York: Norton, 1991.

Abinader, Elmaz. In the Country of My Dreams: Poetry by Elmaz Abinader. Oakland, CA: Sufi Warrior, 1999.

Hall, Loretta, ed. Arab American Voices. Detroit, MI: U X L, 1999.

Kadi, Joanna, ed. Food for Our Grandmothers: Writings by Arab-American and Arab-Canadian Feminists. Boston: South End Press, 1994.

Mattawa, Khaled and Akash, Munir, eds. Post Gibran: Anthology of New Arab American Writing. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2000.

Orfalea, Gregory and Elmusa, Sharif, eds. Grape Leaves: A Century of Arab-American Poetry. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1988.

Shakir, Evelyn. Bint Arab: Arab and Arab American Women in the United States. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1997.

Internet Sites

Al Jadid
This "Review and Record of Arab Culture and the Arts" offers digests and reviews of new Arabic titles in the English language; it also publishes and translates texts from Arabic writers and scholars. Book reviews and interviews with intellectuals such as Edward Said, Youssef Chahine and Etel Adnan are also included.

Discovering Arabic Fiction
An annotated bibliography of notable fiction by Arab and Arab American writers.

The Media Oasis: Journalism, Arab American Issues, Politics and Free Thought
Ray Hanania, a noted Chicago-based writer and journalist, includes information on Arab American literature, culture, and politics on this site. He also provides links to Arab American organizations.

Asian American Literature

Bloom, Harold, ed. Asian-American Writers. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 1999.

Cheung, King-Kok, ed. Words That Matter: Conversations with Asian American Writers. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2000.

Chin, Frank et al., eds. Aiieeeee! An Anthology of Asian-American Writers. Washington: Howard University Press, 1974.

Hagedorn, Jessica, ed. Charlie Chan Is Dead: An Anthology of Contemporary Asian American Fiction. New York: Penguin Books, 1993.

Hongo, Garrett, ed. The Open Boat: Poems from Asian America. New York: Anchor Books Doubleday, 1993.

Kim, Elaine H. Asian American Literature: An Introduction to the Writings and Their Social Context. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1982.

Leonard, George, ed. The Asian Pacific American Heritage: A Companion to Literature and Arts. New York: Garland, 1999.

Lim, Shirley Geok-lin, ed. Asian American Literature: An Anthology. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Pub. Group, 2000.

Lim, Shirley Geok-lin, ed. Tilting the Continent: Southeast Asian American Writing. Minneapolis, MN: New Rivers Press, 2000.

Lim, Shirley Geok-lin and Ling, Amy, eds. Reading the Literature of Asian America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992.

Ling, Amy, ed. Yellow Light: The Flowering of Asian American Arts. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999.

Wong, Shawn, ed. Asian American Literature: A Brief Introduction and Anthology. New York: HarperCollins College, 1996.
Dist. by Addison Wesley Longman as part of the American Literary Survey.

Internet Sites

Asian American Studies Resource Guide
From the Ethnic Studies Project at the University of Southern California, this site contains resources on Asian American literature, literary criticism, and general reference materials. Links to specialized collections at universities and other organizations are also included.

Asian American Writer's Workshop
This community-based art organization is dedicated to the development, creation, publication and dissemination of Asian American literature. Its four divisions, Programs, Publications, Arts-in-Education, and Booksellers, are represented on the Web page, which also contains information on programs, upcoming events, and membership.

SCRAAL: Seattle Contemporary Review of Asian American Literature
Updated every weekday, this online journal provides book reviews and interviews with Asian American authors. The extensive links cover literary journals, poetry, newspapers and magazines, publishers, theater and Asian American studies.

Teaching Asian American Literature
Written by the late Dr. Amy Ling, a noted scholar at the University of Wisconsin -- Madison, this essay from the Heath Anthology Newsletter sets the stage for students new to the field.

Black American Literature

Donalson, Melvin, ed. Cornerstones: An Anthology of African American Literature. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996.

Gates, Henry Louis and McKay, Nellie Y., eds. Norton Anthology of African American Literature. New York: Norton, 1996.

McMillan, Terry, ed. Breaking Ice: An Anthology of Contemporary Black Writers. New York: Penguin, 1990.

Rowell, Charles H. and Julien, Claude. "John Edgar Wideman: The European Response; Special Issue." Callaloo, Summer 1999, entire issue. For table of contents, see:

Smith, Rochelle and Jones, Sharon L., eds. The Prentice Hall Anthology of African American Literature. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1999.

Stepto, Robert B. Blue as the Lake: A Personal Geography. Boston: Beacon Press, 1998.

Stepto, Robert B. From Behind the Veil: A Study of Afro-American Narrative. 2nd ed. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991.

Worley, Demetrice A. and Perry, Jesse, Jr., eds. African-American Literature: An Anthology. 2nd ed. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Publishing Group, 1998.

Young, Kevin, ed. Giant Steps: The New Generation of African American Writers. New York: HarperCollins, 1999.

Internet Sites

African American Literature
From the Ethnic Studies Project at the University of Southern California, this site contains resources on African American literature, literary criticism, articles, dissertations and general reference materials.

African American Literature and History
Includes a brief history of African American literature, online e-texts from the New York Public Library's Schomburg Center, full text poetry for several African American poets, and online resource documents on literature by and about blacks.

African American Literature Resources (Osaka University)
This comprehensive list of African American literary Internet resources includes book browsers and publishers, recent publications, bibliographies, authors and their works, periodicals, and criticism.
This site is produced by the co-editors of Microsoft(r) Encarta(r) Africana, including Professors Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and Kwame Anthony Appiah. Its purpose is to promote understanding of black history and culture and to promote the educational use of Microsoft(r) Encarta(r) Africana in homes, schools, universities, and corporations. Coverage includes African American lifestyle, heritage, worldview and art. is the Web page of the African American Online Writers Guild . The page is designed "to educate, inform, support and empower aspiring and published African American writers. . . . The Guild is dedicated to providing information, news, resources and support to Black writers while promoting the Internet as a tool for research and fellowship among the cultural writing community."

Women of Color, Women of Words
Based at the School of Communication, Information and Library Studies/SCILS at Rutgers University, this site is devoted to the work of African American women playwrights. It includes an alphabetical listing of resources which contain critical as well as biographical information about African American women writers. Individual writers' pages list the author's works. Books marked with the logo are available for sale.

Hispanic American Literature

Augenbraun, Harold and Stavans, Ilan, eds. Growing Up Latino: Memoirs and Stories. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1993.

Cortina, Rodolfo, ed. Hispanic Literature: An Anthology. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Pub. Group, 1997.

Dick, Bruce and Sirias, Silvio, eds. Conversations with Rudolfo Anaya. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1998.

Flores, Lauro, ed. The Floating Borderlands: Twenty-five Years of U.S. Hispanic Literature. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998.

Gonzalez, Ray, ed. Currents from the Dancing River: Contemporary Latino Fiction, Nonfiction, and Poetry. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1994.

Gonzalez, Ray, ed. Mirrors Beneath the Earth: Short Fiction by Chicano Writers. Willimantic, CT: Curbstone Press, 1992.
Dist. by InBook, East Haven, CT.

Lopez, Tiffany Ana, ed. Growing Up Chicana/o: An Anthology. New York: Morrow, 1993.

Kanellos, Nicolas, ed. Hispanic American Literature: A Brief Introduction and Anthology. New York: HarperCollins College, 1995.
Dist. by Addison Wesley Longman as part of the American Literary Survey.

Kanellos, Nicolas, ed. Short Fiction by Hispanic Writers. Houston, TX: Arte Público Press, 1993.

Milligan, Bruce; Guerrero, Mary, and de Hoyos, Angela, eds. Daughters of the Fifth Sun: A Collection of Latina Fiction and Poetry. New York: Riverhead Books, 1995.

Poey, Delia and Suarez, Virgil, eds. Iguana Dreams: New Latino Fiction. New York: HarperPerennial, 1992.

Poey, Delia and Suarez, Virgil, eds. Little Havana Blues: A Cuban-American Literature Anthology. Houston, TX: Arte Público Press, 1996.

Santiago, Roberto, ed. BORICUAS: Influential Puerto Rican Writings -- An Anthology. New York: Random House, 1995.

Soto, Gary, ed. Pieces of the Heart: New Chicano Fiction. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1993.

Internet Sites

Americano Literature
In this article from the May 1999 issue of Hispanic, Mary Helen Ponce focuses on how Hispanic American writers have contributed to the U.S. literary landscape since the days of the early Spanish explorers. A comprehensive list of Latino literature is appended.

CLNet - Library
This site from the UCLA's Chicano Studies Research Center has some useful links to online collections, archives and reference resources, catalogs, publishers, books, magazines, and other electronic publications.

Guadalupe Cultural Arts Center - Literature
The mission of this San Antonio (Texas) Center is to preserve, promote and develop the arts and culture of the Chicano/Latino/Native American peoples. Among the activities sponsored by its literature program is the Annual San Antonio Inter-American Bookfair and Literary Festival, which features many leading Chicano writers of international importance. The festival is "the single most important public venue in the U.S. for for new Latino/a writers," according to its organizers.

Mexican American Literature
From the Ethnic Studies Project at the University of Southern California, this site lists resources on Mexican American literary history and provides reference materials.

Voces Americanas / American Voices -- A Celebration of Writing by American Authors of Latino Heritage for Readers of All Ages
This highly graphic page is based on an exhibit sponsored by the Texas Humanities Resource Center and curated by Dr. Roberta Fernandez. Images from the title pages of numerous literary works representing Latino literature through the years are interspersed with descriptions of their contents. Of particular interest is the essay, "Thirty Years of Hispanic Literature in the United States."

Native American Literature

Bruchac, Joseph, ed. Returning the Gift: Poetry and Prose from the First North American Native Writers' Festival. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1994.

Bruchac, Joseph; Witalec, Janet; and Malinowski, Sharon, eds.
Smoke Rising: The Native North American Literary Companion. Detroit: Visible Ink Press, 1995.

Forbes, Jack D. Only Approved Indians. Norman: University of Oklahoma, 1995.

Harvey, Karen, ed., with Lisa Harjo. American Indian Voices. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1995.

Hobson, Geary, ed. The Remembered Earth: An Anthology of Contemporary Native American Literature. Albuquerque, NM: Red Earth Press, 1979.

Isernhagen, Hartwig, ed. Momaday, Vizenor, Armstrong: Conversations on American Indian Writing. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999.

Momaday, N. Scott. The Man Made of Words: Essays, Stories, Passages. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.

Niatum, Duane, ed. Harper's Anthology of 20th Century Native American Poetry. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1988.

Ortiz, Simon J., ed. Speaking for the Generations: Native Writers on Writing. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1998.

Trout, Lawana, comp. Native American Literature: An Anthology. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Pub. Group, 1999.

Velie, Alan R., ed. American Indian Literature: An Anthology. Rev. ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.

Velie, Alan R., ed. The Lightning Within: An Anthology of Contemporary American Indian Fiction. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991.

Vizenor, Gerald. Native American Literature: A Brief Introduction and Anthology. New York: HarperCollins College, 1995.
Dist. by Addison Wesley Longman as part of the American Literary Survey.

Whitson, Kathy J. Native American Literatures: An Encyclopedia of Works, Characters, Authors, and Themes. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 1999.

Witalec, Janet, ed. Native North American Literature. Detroit: Gale Research, 1994.

Internet Sites

American Indian Literature Resources (Osaka University)
This comprehensive list of Native American literary Internet resources includes book browsers and publishers, recent publications, bibliographies, authors and their works, periodicals and criticism.

American Indian Online Texts (Osaka University)
Classical and contemporary prose and poetry texts can be accessed through this site as well as book reviews and interviews with Native American authors.

Native American Authors
Browsable by title, tribe and author, this site features bibliographies of published works, biographical information, and links to online resources: interviews, texts and tribal Web pages. Emphasis is given to contemporary Native American Authors.

Native American Sites
Lisa A. Mitten, social science bibliographer at the University of Pittsburgh, compiled this page "to provide access to home pages of individual Native Americans and Nations, and to other sites that provide solid information about American Indians." Native American storytellers and authors are among the categories covered on this comprehensive site.

This international, nonprofit, educational organization uses the Internet to disseminate information about Native, Aboriginal, or Indigenous nations, peoples and organizations. The Resource Center provides a searchable directory to numerous links related to Native American arts and literature.

Storytellers: Native American Authors Online
Includes links to official and unofficial home pages of Native American authors as well as some full text publications, reviews and information on upcoming events. The Native Writers Circle of the Americas awards are also described here.

WWW Virtual Library -- American Indians -- Index of Native American Electronic Text Resources on the Internet
Full texts of books, articles, poetry and interviews by and about Native Americans are accessible here.

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